Twitterbots: Anatomy of a Propaganda Campaign
According to Gillian Cleary, Senior Software Engineer the key findings arethe following:
- The operation was carefully planned, with accounts often registered months before they were used – and well in advance of the 2016 U.S. presidential election. The average time between account creation and first tweet was 177 days.
- A core group of main accounts was used to push out new content. These were often ”fake news” outlets masquerading as regional news outlets or pretended to be political organizations.
- A much larger pool of auxiliary accounts was used to amplify messages pushed out by the main accounts. These usually pretended to be individuals.
- The campaign directed propaganda at both sides of the liberal/conservative political divide in the U.S., in particular the more disaffected elements of both camps.
- Most accounts were primarily automated, but they would frequently show signs of manual intervention, such as posting original content or slightly changing the wording of reposted contented, presumably in an attempt to make them appear more authentic and reduce the risk of their deletion. Fake news accounts were set up to monitor blog activity and automatically push new blog posts to Twitter. Auxiliary accounts were configured to retweet content pushed out by the main accounts.
- The most retweeted account garnered over 6 million retweets. Only a small fraction (1,850) of those retweets came from other accounts within the dataset, meaning many of the retweets could have come from genuine Twitter users.
Different account types
The accounts could be divided into two main categories, which we called main accounts and auxiliary accounts. Each category had different characteristics and played a different role.
Main accounts had at least 10,000 followers but followed substantially fewer accounts. They were primarily used to publish new tweets.
Auxiliary accounts had less than 10,000 followers, but often followed more accounts than that. Their main purpose was to retweet messages from other accounts, although they were also used to publish original tweets. Not surprisingly, the majority of accounts were auxiliary accounts. We identified 123 main accounts and 3,713 auxiliary accounts within the dataset.
Main accounts generally were ”fake news” outlets masquerading as regional news outlets, or pretending to be political parties or hashtag games—the popular Twitter game that involves people sharing anecdotes or jokes based on a single theme, such as #5WordsToRuinADate. Based on their creation date they were usually created individually or in small batches. The default language selected for main accounts was always either English or Russian.
Auxiliary accounts usually pretended to be individuals, spreading the content created by the main accounts by retweeting it. These accounts were usually created in batches and sometimes hundreds of auxiliary accounts were created on the same day. For example, during May 2014, seven fake news accounts were set up by the agency, along with 514 auxiliary accounts.
Many of the accounts were created long before they were used. The average time between account creation and first tweet was 177 days. The average length of time an account remained active was 429 days.