Golf-Papez and Veer proposed a general model of micro- and macro-factors based on the RAT theory to describe the favourable environment for trolling behaviour:
The model postulates trolling occurs in online environments where motivated trolls and reactive targets are present without the oversight of capable guardians controlling the situation and interactions. This means that a particular social media platform can host a number of trolls and possible victims, however, trolling activity can be absent due to proper supervision executed by, for example, comment vetting, reporting or flagging tools, moderators.
On the micro level individual structural or psychological traits, like one’s age, sex, emotional state, group membership constitutes the opportunity for trolling, macro factors are those features of the technical platform, online community that structurally allow or limit certain behaviours to occur on the part of victims, trolls and guardian actors (persons or algorithms). Both perpetrators and victims can actively contribute to the establishment of a troll-friendly environment. For example, possible victims visit places without proper defensive mechanisms against trolling or have bad privacy settings, whereas motivated trolls can search for online communities tolerating trolls or incapacitate programming or moderator’s defences against trolling.
Don’t feed trolls –
– recommended by ABTSHIELD